I woman with a basket on her head walks along a tarred road.

Improving Governance of Community Wildlife Management Areas in a key Wildlife Corridor in Tanzania

Community Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) in Tanzania are lands designated for wildlife conservation and managed by rural communities. Every five years, the villages associated with particular WMAs elect leaders to run their Community-Based Organisation (CBO) that is recognised by government as an Authorised Association mandated to manage their WMAs. Well-managed WMAs should achieve the twin goals of wildlife conservation and generating socio-economic benefits for community members.

Five community WMAs – Chingoli, Kimbanda, Kisungule, Mbarang’andu and Nalika – are located in the Ruvuma region. These WMAs are located within the Niassa-Selous Trans-frontier Conservation Area (TFCA) between Selous Game Reserve in Tanzania and Niassa National Reserve in Mozambique. 

Together, these five WMAs cover over 8,100 square kilometres, where over 75,000 people live alongside wildlife within a wildlife corridor that is critically important for the ecological functioning of the TFCA. This is one of the longest wildlife corridors used by savannah elephants in Africa.

A very green field bounded by woodland.

Providing support for community WMAs

Despite the conservation importance of this area, these WMAs have not yet been developed to the point where they are financially successful, socially valued and provide long-term environmental protection. The Community Wildlife Management Areas Consortium (CWMAC) has therefore partnered with the Honeyguide Foundation in a European Union-funded project to assist these communities with reaching these goals.

Our joint project has five core goals:

  1. Introduce professional management and good governance practices at the WMA level; 
  2. Develop sustainable nature-based enterprises and long-term partnerships to provide the necessary funding for the WMA to cover their operational costs and provide community services; 
  3. Develop programmes that will provide valuable social services to the WMA communities to improve their livelihoods; 
  4. Introduce regular and transparent communications between the WMA and its stakeholders using various communications media following a strategic communications plan; 
  5. Develop strategic and cost-effective environmental protection initiatives to protect and conserve the WMA’s natural resources. 

Selemani Omary Paswele, Secretary of the Chingoli WMA, welcomed the initiative, saying: “The Honeyguide Foundation’s work resembles the bird called “Ndegule” (a local name for honeyguide bird) whose function is to show an animal or human where honey is. Honeyguide have come to show us the way; when they see that we are ready and capable of managing our areas they will leave and we will continue by ourselves.”

A group of around 60 people smiling at the camera.

Assessing the current governance of community WMAs

The first step in this project was to assess the current governance of the five target WMAs in the Ruvuma region. CWMAC and Honeyguide conducted this assessment using methodology called “Site-level assessment on governance and equity” (SAGE). The International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) developed SAGE in 2019 for the purpose of assessing governance of protected and conserved areas and was therefore ideal for our purposes.

Using SAGE involves a stakeholder-led, self-assessment process to assess the quality of governance and equity using a framework of ten principles of effective and equitable governance. In each WMA, we conducted a stakeholder analysis, prepared a site profile, and finally held a two-day assessment workshop with stakeholders. 

This was the first time all of the key stakeholders involved in each of the five WMAs were brought together to discuss such matters. The final outcome of the SAGE process informs planning, strategy, reporting, and policy development at the system, national, and global levels. 

As Alfred William Rugarula, an officer in the Tanzania Forest Service, stated: “The SAGE training has been really participatory, because all key actors have been involved – something which is rare – so am suggesting that we should keep on collaborating like this, and those who participated should be good ambassadors back home.” 

The two-day workshops held in each of the five target WMAs were attended by: 

  • 15 representatives of the WMA Authorised Association and its board of trustees;
  • 5 Management and Village Game Scout representatives (staff working in the WMA); 
  • 5 Government representatives;
  • 20 local community members who are not involved in the management of the WMA (10 men, 10 women);
  • 5 representatives of investors and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) operating in the area. 

During the workshop, five stakeholder groups used the SAGE questionnaire to score the WMA on each of the 10 SAGE principles of good governance. Each group had to provide a rationale for their scores, and later discuss reasons for differences in scoring with the other groups. They explored whether consensus could be reached for each score and identified actions to improve governance and equity. 

A group of participants looking towards the camera and lecturer in an open-sided room.

Challenges and recommended actions

This process highlighted common challenges faced by all five of the WMAs, which will need to be addressed in future. The lowest scores achieved related to the managing the negative impacts of wildlife conservation, especially those related to human-wildlife conflict. Another weak point was the lack of coordination and collaboration among different stakeholders. The WMA management and leadership have low technical capacity to achieve such coordination. 

On the positive side, respect for actors scored highly, showing that human rights are respected and that there is fair recognition of all involved. The principle of benefit sharing was either not assessed or prioritised lowest, most likely because these WMAs have not generated socio-economic benefits yet due to the lack of investors.

Several actions were recommended in multiple WMAs: 

  1. Introduce community awareness and education programmes to understand the value of wildlife and other natural resources for improving their livelihoods; 
  2. Demarcate WMA boundaries clearly to minimise encroachment; 
  3. Finalise new general management plans to enhance proper management of the area; 
  4. Improve collaboration between WMA’s and NGO partners, investors and local government; 
  5. Develop and strengthen communication systems to keep WMA stakeholders informed;
  6. Access finances for equipment to support the smooth implementation of activities in the WMA including human-wildlife conflict mitigation; 
  7. Reinstate or start WMA meetings, regular patrols of the areas, and training on good governance practices for WMA leadership and management.

One of the workshop participants, Kulwa Laluka Mboje, a livestock-keeper from Mbatamila village reflected: “I’m happy that I got the chance to participate in this training, because it will help us when we go back to village, as a lot of citizens do not have this knowledge and they participate in destructive activities due to lack of knowledge. The community needs to know that encroaching in conserved areas either by burning charcoal or farming destroys the forest, and livestock-keepers grazing inside conserved areas also leads to destruction”. 

Next steps

CWMAC and the Honeyguide Foundation are already taking the next steps in line with the recommendations given during the workshops. We have set dates for governance capacity building and trainings, allocated funds to support recruitment of management staff and equipment purchases, and started developing WMA guidance manuals. These manuals will be big step towards attaining the desired future of community WMAs in the Ruvuma landscape. 

It is our hope that this partnership and collaboration will expand to reach more WMAs in future and that each of the target WMAs starts to generate benefits for their members. With the right governance in place, WMAs will be able to engage investors in hunting and photographic tourism. The presence of camps and lodges will provide opportunities for local entrepreneurs to sell their crafts and other goods and services. We want to ensure that these communities reap the rewards of deciding to set some of their land aside for conservation through the benefits generated for both current and future generations. 

By: Community Wildlife Management Areas Consortium of Tanzania
Giraffe and handshake logo of the CWMAC.

Green hill with deep gullies created by heavy rainfall.

Cyclone Freddy: A Wake up call for Malawi

From 11th to 14th March 2023, Cyclone Freddy hit Malawi with a vengeance, sweeping away entire villages and leaving 676 dead and 537 missing. Over 659,278 people have been displaced due to the flooding while over 1.1 million people are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. 

Massive infrastructure damage has been reported, including roads, bridges, clinics, schools, and houses and other property of desperately poor people. An estimated 738,200 learners are unable to attend classes due to their schools being flooded, cut off, or turned into IDP camps while 577,525 children under five years old and lactating mothers are estimated to be at risk of malnutrition.

This natural disaster has exposed Malawi’s vulnerability to climate change and starkly illustrated the cost of deforestation. Global Forest Watch reported that Malawi has lost 209,000 hectares of forest cover in 20 years and the rate is showing no sign of slowing down. Malawi’s natural buffers against flooding have thus been removed or compromised in many places. 

During Cyclone Freddy, the denuded hills resulted in dangerous landslides that sent mud and huge rocks hurtling down and buried people, livestock, and crop fields in their paths while further degrading the landscape through soil erosion and subsequent gulley formation. The hardest hit communities in Malawi are located in the rural areas (85% of the population is rural), where people live off low-yield subsistence crop farming. The cyclone hit just before crops were due to be harvested, leaving thousands of households dependent on food aid to survive.

An entire street has been turned into a river, and the houses flooded.

Besides the general decline in natural resources, Malawi’s protected areas are coming under increasing pressure. Neighbouring communities are clearing parts of these parks and reserves for croplands, encroaching them in search of firewood, and inevitably coming into more conflict with wildlife like elephants. 

Cyclone Freddy also hit communities living around Lengwe National Park and Majete Game Reserve especially hard, with 58,943 cropfields flooded or buried in mud. Davis Kaliza, Chairman of Majete Wildlife Reserve Association described the situation: “whole crop fields with ready-to-harvest food crops like maize, sorghum, sesame, and millet have been washed away.” He says further, “people are scrambling for humanitarian assistance, and need support to plant winter crops if they are to avert an impending famine.”

With no crops left, these communities may turn to poaching and other negative coping strategies to put food on the table. Urgent help is needed to mitigate the humanitarian and conservation risks associated with Cyclone Freddy. As Malidadi Langa, Board Chairman of the National CBNRM (Community-based Natural Resource Management) Forum states, “the tragedy is that while everyone is focused on humanitarian assistance, the massive environmental damage, while visible for all to see, remains off the radar in terms of action and will likely feed into another disaster in future.” 

Poverty is the underlying cause of Malawi’s increasing vulnerability to climate change. As one of the most densely populated African countries, over 13 million Malawians live below the international poverty line of US$1.90 per day. Energy needs are met by harvesting trees for firewood, resulting in deforestation and subsequent lowering of the water table. Wells that people used to use for water are now dry soon after the rainy season. Women have to walk further than ever to provide water and firewood for their families; deforestation is increasingly impacting women more than men.  

While aid is needed urgently to get over the current crisis, we need long-term solutions just as much. The government’s Forest Landscape Restoration Strategy, which commits to restoring 4.5 million hectares of degraded forests, is a start in the right direction, although this suffered a severe set back due to Cyclone Freddy. Newly planted tree seedlings were uprooted, tree nurseries were washed away, and massive soil erosion left large areas too degraded for tree planting operations. 

Malawi needs more than just a tree planting strategy, as important as that is. We need alternative livelihoods and sources of energy to lift our communities out of poverty and reduce their reliance on subsistence crop farming for food and firewood for energy. For communities living near state protected areas, tourism is an option that needs to be more fully explored. Given the large number of people, however, we cannot rely on tourism alone. 

The challenge before us is to diversify income streams and thus develop community resilience against shocks like Cyclone Freddy and other threats related to climate change. We are constantly looking for new ideas and solutions for our communities. If Cyclone Freddy has taught us one thing, it is that we cannot continue with ‘business as usual’.

By Malawi National CBNRM Forum

CLN Annual Report 2022

The Community Leaders Network of Southern Africa (CLN) has participated in various national, regional and international fora during the year 2022, leaving significant impacts at every one of them. All these activities are in line with CLN’s mandate of ensuring that community members who actually live with wildlife on a daily basis are consulted in all decisions regarding management of wildlife and other natural resources. Community members participated at events such as CITES CoP19, CBD CoP15, APAC, UNEA 5 – amongst others.

Detailed report of activities can be accessed here: CLN Annual Report 2022


The cost of living with deadly wildlife

 The Cost of Living with Wildlife

As narrated by Mr. Liberty Chauka – Zimbabwe


One day as we were walking in the forest, a raucous high-pitched sound of hadida ibises disturbed the feeding pride of lions as we were approaching close by. This was followed by the grumbling of lions that were feeding on our cattle. Fortunately, we were a group of young boys and two men, and we managed to chase them and recovered the livestock carcass.

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Hunting Trophies (Import Prohibition) Bill debate

Quote from Sir Bill Wiggin during the Hunting Trophies (Import Prohibition) Bill debate in the UK House of Commons – 25 Nov 2022

“We need to appreciate what it is like to live with large and dangerous or endangered species. We cannot expect people in rural Africa to have the same views on this subject as the voters in, say, Crawley. That is why telling Africans—however we choose to cushion the message—how to manage their wildlife is fundamentally wrong, post-colonial and possibly racist, and I cannot stand by and allow this to go uncriticised”

Press Release: Southern Africa meets resistance to proposals on communities and wildlife trade

Southern Africa meets resistance to proposals on communities and wildlife trade

  • Countries in the Southern African Development Council (SADC) are pushing
    to incorporate rural communities and their livelihoods in decisions about the
    international trade of wildlife.
  •  While they have met resistance to their proposals from other countries, SADC
    governments have showcased how working alongside their communities can
    achieve conservation and sustainable development goals.
  • Community representatives from Southern Africa who attended CITES made
    interventions in support of their governments’ position.
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